First and foremost thing is go to your pet store
and purchase some heavy plastic sheeting or double-sided
carpet tape. You can use this temporary measures until
your critter learns to scratch an approved target.
More or less cats are like us, after all, both
of us are mammals. Scratching is a natural phenomena of felids.
They scratch because they mark the territory and deposit scent on
it. In home, it is a way for your felid to say you are mine.
You can trim your cats nail.
I am not talking about declawing.
Just trim the nails. You so they accept it as part of routine grooming.
If it is not possible for you to do regularly, then purchase a good
vertical cat scratching post and begin training.